Key of Symbols
C Carbon Incl Inconel Ex Excellent P Poor RF RF sputtering is effective * Influenced by composition
Gr Graphite VC Vitreous carbon G Good S Sublimes RF-R Reactive RF sputter is effective ** Cr-plated rod or strip
Q Quartz SS Stainless Steel F Fair D Decomposes     *** All metals alumina coated

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Material
Symbol
MP
(°C)
S/D
g/cm3
Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
Evaporation Techniques
Sputter
Comments
10-8
10-6
10-4
E-Beam
Thermal Sources
Boat
Coil
Basket
Crucible
Aluminum  Al 660 2.7 677 821 1,010 Ex W TiB2-BN, ZrB2, BN DC Alloys W/Mo/Ta. Flash evap or use BN crucible.
Aluminum Antimonide AlSb 1,080 4.3 RF  
Aluminum Arsenide AlAs 1,600 3.7 ~ 1,300 RF  
Aluminum Bromide AlBr3 97 2.64 ~ 50 Mo Gr  
Aluminum Carbide Al4C3 ~1,400 D 2.36 ~ 800 F RF n = 2.7
Aluminum Fluoride AlF3 1,291 S 2.88 410 490 700 P Mo, W, Ta Gr RF  
Aluminum Nitride AlN >2,200 S 3.26 ~1,750 F RF-R Decomposes. Reactive evap in 10-3 T N2 with glow discharge.
Aluminum Oxide Al2O3 2,072 3.97 1,550 Ex W W RF-R Sapphire excellent in E-beam; forms smooth, hard films. n = 1.66
Aluminum Phosphide AlP 2,000 2.42 RF  
Aluminum, 2% Copper Al2%Cu 640 2.82 DC Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Aluminum, 2% Silicon Al2%Si 640 2.69 1,010 TiB2-BN RF, DC Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Antimony Sb 630 S 6.68 279 345 425 P Mo*** Ta*** Mo, Ta Mo, Ta BN, C, Al2O3 RF, DC Evaporates well
Antimony Oxide Sb2O3 656 S 5.2 ~300 G Pt Pt BN, Al2O3 RF-R Decomposes on W. n = 2.09, 2.18, 2.35
Antimony Selenide Sb2Se3 611 - Ta C RF Stoichiometry variable.
Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 550 4.64 ~200 G Mo, Ta Mo, Ta Al2O3 No decomposition. n=3.19, 4.06, 4.3
Antimony Telluride Sb2Te3 629 6.5 600 C RF Decomposes over 750° C
Arsenic As 817 S 5.73 107 150 210 P C Al2O3, BeO, VC Sublimes rapidly at low temp.
Arsenic Oxide As2O3 312 3.74  
Arsenic Selenide As2Se3 ~360 4.75 Al2O3, Q RF  
Arsenic Sulfide As2S3 300 3.43 ~400 F Mo Al2O3, Q RF n = 2.4, 2.81, 3.02
Arsenic Telluride As2Te3 362 Flash See JVST. 1973;10:748
 Barium Ba 725 3.51 545 627 735 F W, Ta, Mo W W Metals RF Wets without alloying; reacts with ceramics
Barium Chloride BaCl2 963 3.92 ~650 Ta, Mo RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.73
Barium Fluoride BaF2 1,355 S 4.89 ~700 G Mo RF n = 1.47
Barium Oxide BaO 1,918 5.72 ~1,300 P Pt Pt Al2O3 RF, RF-R Decomposes slightly. n = 1.98
Barium Sulfide BaS 1,200 4.25 1,100 Mo RF n = 2.16
Barium Titanate BaTiO3 D 6.02 RF Gives Ba. Co-evap. from 2 sources or
Beryllium Be 1,278 1.85 710 878 1,000 Ex W, Ta W W BeO, C, VC DC Wets W/Mo/Ta. Evaporates easily
Beryllium Carbide Be2C >2,100 D 1.9  
Beryllium Chloride BeCl2 405 1.9 ~150 RF  
Beryllium Fluoride BeF2 800 S 1.99 ~200 G n = <1.33
Beryllium Oxide BeO 2,530 3.01 1,900 G W RF, RF-R No decomposition from E-beam guns. n=1.72
Bismuth Bi 271 9.8 330 410 520 Ex W, Mo, Ta W W Al2O3, VC DC Resistivity high.
Bismuth Fluoride BiF3 727 S 5.32 ~300 Gr RF n = 1.74
Bismuth Oxide Bi2O3 860 8.55 ~1,400 P Pt Pt RF, RF-R n = 1.91
Bismuth Selenide Bi2Se3 710 D 6.82 ~650 G Gr, Q RF Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter
Bismuth Sulfide Bi2S3 685 D 7.39 - RF n = 1.34, 1.46
Bismuth Telluride Bi2Te3 573 7.7 ~600 W, Mo Gr, Q RF Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter
Bismuth Titanate Bi2Ti2O7 D - RF Sputter or co-evap from 2 sources in 10-2 Torr O2
Boron B 2,079 2.34 1,278 1,548 1,797 Ex C C, VC RF Explodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container
Boron Carbide B4C 2,350 2.52 2,500 2,580 2,650 Ex RF Similar to chromium.
Boron Nitride BN ~3,000 S 2.25 ~1,600 P RF, RF-R Decomposes when sputtered; Reactive preferred
Boron Oxide B2O3 ~450 1.81 ~1,400 G Pt, Mo n = 1.48
Boron Sulfide B2S3 310 1.55 800 Gr RF  
 Cadmium Cd 321 8.64 64 120 180 P W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta Al2O3, QDC, RF Bad for vacuum systems. Low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium Antimonide Cd3Sb2 456 6.92  
Cadmium Arsenide Cd3As2 721 6.21 Q RF  
Cadmium Bromide CdBr2 567 5.19 ~300  
Cadmium Chloride CdCl2 568 4.05 ~400  
Cadmium Fluoride CdF2 1,100 6.64 ~500 RF n = 1.56
Cadmium Iodide CdI2 387 5.67 ~250  
Cadmium Oxide CdO >1,500 D 6.95 ~530 RF-R Disproportionates. n = 2.49
Cadmium Selenide CdSe >1,350 S 5.81 540 G Mo, Ta Al2O3, Q RF Evaporates easily. n = 2.4
Cadmium Sulfide CdS 1,750 S 4.82 550 F W, Mo, Ta W Al2O3, Q RF Sticking coefficient affected by substrate
Cadmium Telluride CdTe 1,121 5.85 450 W, Mo, Ta W W, Ta, Mo RF Stoichiometry depends on substrate temp. n~2.6
Calcium Ca 839 S 1.54 272 357 459 P W W W Al2O3, Q Corrodes in air.
Calcium Fluoride CaF2 1,423 3.18 ~1,100 W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta Q RF Rate control important. Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.43
Calcium Oxide CaO 2,614 ~3.3 ~1,700 W, Mo ZrO2 RF-R Forms volatile oxides with W/Mo.
Calcium Silicate CaSiO3 1,540 2.91 G Q RF n = 1.61, 1.66
Calcium Sulfide CaS D 2.5 1,100 Mo RF Decomposes. n = 2.14
Calcium Titanate CaTiO3 1,975 4.1 1,490 1,600 1,690 P RF Disproportionates except in sputtering. n = 2.34
Calcium Tungstate CaWO4 6.06 G W RF n = 1.92
Carbon C ~3,652 S 1.8–2.1 1,657 1,867 2,137 Ex PDC E-beam preferred. Arc evaporation. Poor film adhesion.
Cerium Ce 798 ~6.70 970 1,150 1,380 G W, Ta W W, Ta Al2O3, BeO, VC DC, RF  
Cerium (III) Oxide Ce2O3 1,692 6.86 F W Alloys with source. Use 0.015"–0.020" W boat. n = 1.95
Cerium (IV) Oxide CeO2 ~2,600 7.13 1,890 2,000 2,310 G W RF, RF-R Very little decomposition.
Cerium Fluoride CeF3 1,460 6.16 ~900 G W, Mo, Ta Mo, Ta RF Preheat gently to outgas. n ~ 1.7
Cesium Cs 28 1.88 -16 22 80 SS Q  
Cesium Bromide CsBr 636 3.04 ~400 W RF n = 1.70
Cesium Chloride CsCl 645 3.99 ~500 W RF n = 1.64
Cesium Fluoride CsF 682 4.12 ~500 W RF n = 1.48
Cesium Hydroxide CsOH 272 3.68 550 Pt  
Cesium Iodide CsI 626 4.51 ~500 W Pt, Q RF n = 1.79
Chiolote Na5Al3F14 2.9 ~800 Mo, W RF n = 1.33
Chromium Cr 1,857 S 7.2 837 977 1,157 G ** W W VC DC Films very adherent. High rates possible.
Chromium Boride CrB 2,760(?) 6.17 RF  
Chromium Bromide CrBr2 842 4.36 550 Incl RF  
Chromium Carbide Cr3C2 1,980 6.68 ~2,000 F W RF  
Chromium Chloride CrCl2 824 2.88 550 Fe, Incl RF  
Chromium Oxide Cr2O3 2,266 5.21 ~2,000 G W, Mo W RF, RF-R Disproportionates to lower oxides; reoxidizes at 600° C in air. n = 2.55
Chromium Silicide CrSi2 1,490 5.5 RF  
Chromium-Silicon Monoxide Cr-SiO S * * * * G W W RF Flash evaporate
Cobalt Bromide CoBr2 678 D 4.91 400 Incl RF  
Cobalt Chloride CoCl2 724 D 3.36 472 Incl RF  
Cobalt Oxide CoO 1,795 6.45 DC-R, RF-R Sputter preferred.
Cobalt° Co 1,495 8.9 850 990 1,200 Ex W, Nb W Al2O3, BeO DC Alloys with W/Te/Mo
Copper Cu 1,083 8.92 727 857 1,017 Ex Mo W W Al2O3, Mo, Ta DC Adhesion poor. Use interlayer (Cr). Evaporates using any source material.
Copper Chloride CuCl 430 4.14 ~600 RF n = 1.93
Copper Oxide Cu2O 1,235 S 6 ~600 G Ta Al2O3 DC-R, RF-R n = 2.71
Copper Sulfide Cu2S 1,100 5.6  
Cryolite Na3AlF6 1,000 2.9 1,020 1,260 1,480 Ex W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta VC RF Large chunks reduce spitting Little decomposition
 Dysprosium Dy 1,412 8.55 625 750 900 G Ta DC  
Dysprosium Fluoride DyF3 1,360 S ~800 G Ta RF  
Dysprosium Oxide Dy2O3 2,340 7.81 ~1,400 Ir RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
 Erbium Er 1,529 S 9.07 650 775 930 G W, Ta DC  
Erbium Fluoride ErF3 1,350 ~750 Mo RF See JVST. 1985; A3(6):2320.
Erbium Oxide Er2O3 8.64 ~1,600 Ir RF, RF-R Loses oxygen
Europium Eu 822 S 5.24 280 360 480 F W, Ta Al2O3 DC Low Te solubility
Europium Fluoride EuF2 1,380 6.5 ~950 Mo RF  
Europium Oxide Eu2O3 7.42 ~1,600 G Ir, Ta, W ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films clear and hard.
Europium Sulfide EuS 5.75 - G RF  
 Gadolinium Carbide GdC2 1,500 C RF Decomposes under sputtering
Gadolinium Oxide Gd2O3 2,330 7.41 F Ir RF, RF-R Loses oxygen
Gadolinium° Gd 1,313 7.9 760 900 1,175 Ex Ta Al2O3 DC High Te solubility
Gallium Ga 30 5.9 619 742 907 G Al2O3, BeO, Q Alloys with W/Te/Mo. Use E-beam gun.
Gallium Antimonide GaSb 710 5.6 F W, Ta RF Flash evaporate
Gallium Arsenide GaAs 1,238 5.3 G W, Ta C RF Flash evaporate
Gallium Nitride GaN 800 S 6.1 ~200 Al2O3 RF, RF-R Evaporate Ga in 10-3 Torr N2
Gallium Oxide Ga2O3 1,900 6.44 Pr, W RF Loses oxygen. n = 1.92
Gallium Phosphide GaP 1,540 4.1 770 920 W, Ta W Q RF Does not decompose. Rate control important.
Germanium Ge 937 5.35 812 957 1,167 Ex W, C, Ta Q, Al2O3 DC Excellent films from E-beam
Germanium (II) Oxide GeO 710 S 500 Q RF n = 1.61
Germanium (III) Oxide GeO2 1,086 6.24 ~625 G Ta, Mo W, Mo Q, Al2O3 RF-R Similar to SiO; film predominantly GeO
Germanium Nitride Ge3N2 450 S 5.2 ~650 RF-R Sputtering preferred
Germanium Telluride GeTe 725 6.2 381 W, Mo W Q, Al2O3 RF  
Glass, Schott® 8329 2.2 Ex RF Evaporable alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating.
Gold Au 1,064 19.32 807 947 1,132 Ex W***, Mo***, W Al2O3, BN, VC, W DC Films soft; not very adherent.
 Hafnium Hf 2,227 13.31 2,160 2,250 3,090 G DC  
Hafnium Boride HfB2 3,250 10.5 DC, RF  
Hafnium Carbide HfC ~3,890 S 12.2 ~2,600 RF  
Hafnium Nitride HfN 3,305 RF, RF-R  
Hafnium Oxide HfO2 2,758 9.68 ~2,500 F W RF, RF-R Film HfO
Hafnium Silicide HfSi2 1,750 7.2 RF  
Holmium Ho 1,474 8.8 650 770 950 G W, Ta W W  
Holmium Fluoride HoF3 1,143 ~800 Q DC, RF  
Holmium Oxide Ho2O3 2,370 8.41 Ir RF, RF-R Loses oxygen
 Inconel Ni/Cr/Fe 1,425 8.5 G W W W DC Use fine wire wrapped on W Low rate required for smooth films
Indium In 157 7.3 487 597 742 Ex W, Mo W Gr, Al2O3 DC Wets W and Cu. Use Mo liner.
Indium (I) Oxide In2O ~600 S 6.99 650 RF Decomposes under sputtering
Indium (I) Sulfide In2S 653 5.87 650 Gr RF  
Indium (II) Sulfide InS 692 S 5.18 650 Gr RF  
Indium (II) Telluride InTe 696 6.29  
Indium (III) Oxide In2O3 850 7.18 ~1,200 G W, Pt Al2O3  
Indium (III) Sulfide In2S3 1,050 S 4.9 850 Gr RF Film In2S
Indium (III) Telluride In2Te3 667 5.78 RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash
Indium Antimonide InSb 535 5.8 W RF Decomposes. Sputter preferred; or co-evaporate.
Indium Arsenide InAs 943 5.7 780 870 970 W RF  
Indium Nitride InN 1,200 7  
Indium Phosphide InP 1,070 4.8 630 730 W, Ta W, Ta Gr RF Deposits are P rich
Indium Selenide In2Se3 890 5.67 RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash
Indium Tin Oxide In2O3–SnO2 1,800 S  
Iridium Ir 2,410 22.42 1,850 2,080 2,380 F ThO2 DC  
Iron (II) Oxide FeO 1,369 5.7 P RF, RF-R Decomposes; sputtering preferred. n=2.32
Iron (III) Oxide Fe2O3 1,565 5.24 G W W Disproportionates to Fe3O4 at 1,530° C. n = 3.01
Iron Bromide 2-Feb 684 D 4.64 561 Fe RF  
Iron Chloride FeCl2 670 S 3.16 300 Fe RF n = 1.57
Iron Iodide FeI2 5.32 400 Fe RF  
Iron Sulfide FeS 1,193 D 4.74 Al2O3 RF Decomposes
Iron° Fe 1,535 7.86 858 998 1,180 Ex W W W Al2O3, BeO DC Attacks W. Films hard, smooth. Preheat gently to outgas.
 Kanthal FeCrAl 7.1 W W W DC  
 Lanthanum La 921 6.15 990 1,212 1,388 Ex W, Ta Al2O3 RF Films will burn in air if scraped
Lanthanum Boride LaB6 2,210 D 2.61 G RF  
Lanthanum Bromide LaBr3 783 5.06 Ta RF Hygroscopic. n=1.94
Lanthanum Fluoride LaF3 1,490 S ~6.0 900 G Ta, Mo Ta RF No decomposition. n ~1.6
Lanthanum Oxide La2O3 2,307 6.51 1,400 G W, Ta RF Loses oxygen. n~1.73
Lead Pb 328 11.34 342 427 497 Ex W, Mo W W, Ta Al2O3, Q DC  
Lead Bromide PbBr2 373 6.66 ~300  
Lead Chloride PbCl2 501 5.85 ~325 Pt Al2O3 RF Little decomposition
Lead Fluoride PbF2 855 S 8.24 ~400 W, Pt, Mo BeO RF n = 1.75
Lead Iodide PbI2 402 6.16 ~500 Pt Q  
Lead Oxide PbO 886 9.53 ~550 Pt Q, Al2O3 RF-R No decomposition. n ~2.6
Lead Selenide PbSe 1,065 S 8.1 ~500 W, Mo W Gr, Al2O3 RF  
Lead Stannate PbSnO3 1,115 8.1 670 780 905 P Pt Pt Al2O3 RF Disproportionates
Lead Sulfide PbS 1,114 S 7.5 500 W W, Mo Q, Al2O3 RF Little decomposition. n = 3.92
Lead Telluride PbTe 917 8.16 780 910 1,050 Mo, Pt, Ta Al2O3, Gr RF Deposits are Te rich. Sputtering preferred;
Lead Titanate PbTiO3 7.52 Ta RF  
Lithium Li 181 0.53 227 307 407 G Ta, SS Al2O3, BeO Metal reacts quickly in air
Lithium Bromide LiBr 550 3.46 ~500 Ni RF n = 1.78
Lithium Chloride LiCl 605 2.07 400 Ni RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.66
Lithium Fluoride LiF 845 2.64 875 1,020 1,180 G Ni, Ta, Mo, W Al2O3 RF Rate control important for optical films. Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.39
Lithium Iodide LiI 449 4.08 400 Mo, W RF n = 1.96
Lithium Oxide Li2O >1,700 2.01 850 Pt, Ir RF n = 1.64
Lutetium Lu 1,663 9.84 1,300 Ex Ta Al2O3 RF, DC  
Lutetium Oxide Lu2O3 9.42 1,400 Ir RF Decomposes
 Magnesium Mg 649 S 1.74 185 247 327 G W, Mo, Ta, Cb W W Al2O3, VC DC Extremely high rates possible
Magnesium Aluminate MgAl2O4 2,135 3.6 G RF Natural spinel. n = 1.72
Magnesium Bromide MgBr2 700 3.72 ~450 Ni RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Chloride MgCl2 714 2.32 400 Ni RF Decomposes. n = 1.67
Magnesium Fluoride MgF2 1,261 2.9–3.2 1,000 Ex Mo, Ta Al2O3 RF Rate control and substrate heat important for Excellent with Mo. n = 1.38
Magnesium Iodide MgI2 <637 D 4.43 200 Ir RF  
Magnesium Oxide MgO 2,852 3.58 1,300 G C, Al2O3 RF, RF-R Evaporates in 10-3 Torr O2 for stoichiometry.
Manganese Mn 1,244 S 7.2 507 572 647 G W, Ta, Mo W W Al2O3, BeO DC  
Manganese (III) Oxide Mn2O3 1,080 4.5  
Manganese (IV) Oxide MnO2 535 5.03 P W W RF-R Loses oxygen at 535° C
Manganese Bromide MnBr2 D 4.39 500 Incl RF  
Manganese Chloride MnCl2 650 2.98 450 Incl RF  
Manganese Sulfide MnS D 3.99 1,300 Mo RF Decomposes. n = 2.70
Mercury Hg -39   13.55 -68 -42 -6  
Mercury Sulfide HgS 584 S 8.1 250 Al2O3 RF Decomposes. n = 2.85, 3.20
Molybdenum Mo 2,617 10.2 1,592 1,822 2,117 Ex DC Films smooth, hard. Careful degas required.
Molybdenum Boride MoB2 2,100 7.12 P RF  
Molybdenum Carbide Mo2C 2,687 8.9 F RF Evaporation of Mo(CO)6 yields Mo2C.
Molybdenum Disulfide MoS2 1,185 4.8 ~50 RF  
Molybdenum Oxide MoO3 795 S 4.69 ~900 Mo, Pt Mo Al2O3, BN RF Slight oxygen loss. n = 1.9
Molybdenum Silicide MoSi2 2,050 6.31 W RF Decomposes
 Neodymium Nd 1,021 7.01 731 871 1,062 Ex Ta Al2O3 DC Low W solubility
Neodymium Fluoride NdF3 1,410 6.5 ~900 G Mo, W Mo, Ta Al2O3 RF Very little decomposition. n = 1.6
Neodymium Oxide Nd2O3 ~1,900 7.24 ~1,400 G Ta, W ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen; films clear. E-beam preferred. n = 1.79
Nichrome IV® Ni/Cr 1,395 8.5 847 987 1,217 Ex *** W W, Ta Al2O3, VC, BeO DC Alloys with W/Te/Mo
Nickel Bromide NiBr2 963 S 5.1 362 Incl RF  
Nickel Chloride NiCl2 1,001 S 3.55 444 Incl RF  
Nickel Oxide NiO 1,984 6.67 ~1,470 Al2O3 RF-R Dissociates on heating. n = 2.18
Nickel° Ni 1,453 8.9 927 1,072 1,262 Ex W W W Al2O3, BeO, VC DC Alloys with W/Te/Mo. Smooth adherent films
Nimendium° Ni3%Mn 1,425 8.8 DC  
Niobium Nb 2,468 8.57 1,728 1,977 2,287 Ex W DC Attacks W source. n = 1.80
Niobium (II) Oxide NbO 7.3 1,100 Pt RF  
Niobium (III) Oxide Nb2O3 1,780 7.5 W W RF, RF-R  
Niobium (V) Oxide Nb2O5 1,485 4.47 W W RF, RF-R n = 1.95
Niobium Boride NbB2 2,900 6.97 RF  
Niobium Carbide NbC 3,500 7.6 F RF  
Niobium Nitride NbN 2,573 8.4 RF, RF-R Reactive. Evaporates Nb in 10-3 Torr N2
Niobium Telluride NbTeX 7.6 RF Composition variable
Niobium-Tin Nb3Sn Ex DC Co-evaporate from two sources
 Osmium Os 3,045 22.48 2,170 2,430 2,760 F DC  
Osmium Oxide Os2O3 D Deposits Os in 10-3 Torr O2
 Palladium Pd 1,554 S 12.02 842 992 1,192 Ex W* W W Al2O3, BeO DC Alloys with refractory metals.
Palladium Oxide PdO 870 9.7 575 Al2O3 RF-R Decomposes
Parylene C8H8 300–400 1.1 Vapor-depositable plastic
Permalloy®° Ni/Fe 1,395 8.7 947 1,047 1,307 G W Al2O3, VC DC Film low in Ni
Phosphorus P 44.1 1.82 327 361 402 Al2O3 Material reacts violently in air. n = 2.14
Phosphorus Nitride P3N5 2.51 RF, RF-R  
Platinum Pt 1,772 21.45 1,292 1,492 1,747 Ex W W W C, ThO2 DC Alloys with metals. Films soft, poor adhesion.
Platinum Oxide PtO2 450 10.2 RF-R  
Plutonium Pu 641 19.84 W  
Polonium Po 254 9.4 117 170 244 Q  
Potassium K 63 0.86 23 60 125 Mo Q Metal reacts rapidly in air. Preheat gently outgas.
Potassium Bromide KBr 734 2.75 ~450 Ta, Mo Q RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.559
Potassium Chloride KCl 770 S 1.98 510 G Ta, Ni RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.49
Potassium Fluoride KF 858 2.48 ~500 Q RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.363
Potassium Hydroxide KOH 360 2.04 ~400 Pt Preheat gently to outgas
Potassium Iodide KI 681 3.13 ~500 Ta RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.677
Praseodymium Pr 931 6.77 800 950 1,150 G Ta DC  
Praseodymium Oxide Pr2O3 D 7.07 1,400 G Ir ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen
 Radium Ra 700 5 (?) 246 320 416  
Rhenium Re 3,180 20.53 1,928 2,207 2,571 P DC  
Rhenium Oxide ReO3 D ~7 RF Evaporate Re in 10-3 Torr O2
Rhodium Rh 1,966 12.4 1,277 1,472 1,707 G W W W ThO2, VC DC E-beam gun preferred
Rubidium Rb 39 1.48 -3 37 111 Q  
Rubidium Chloride RbCl 718 2.09 ~550 Q RF n = 1.493
Rubidium Iodide RbI 647 3.55 ~400 Q RF n = 1.647
Ruthenium Ru 2,310 12.3 1,780 1,990 2,260 P W DC  
 Samarium Sm 1,074 7.52 373 460 573 G Ta Al2O3 DC  
Samarium Oxide Sm2O3 2,350 8.35 G Ir ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films smooth, clear.
Samarium Sulfide Sm2S3 1,900 5.73 G  
Scandium Sc 1,541 2.99 714 837 1,002 Ex W Al2O3, BeO RF Alloys with Ta.
Scandium Oxide Sc2O3 2,300 3.86 ~400 F RF, RF-R  
Selenium Se 217 4.81 89 125 170 G W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo Al2O3, VC Bad for vacuum systems. High V.P.
Silicon Si 1,410 2.32 992 1,147 1,337 F W, Ta BeO, Ta, VC DC, RF Alloys with W; use heavy W boat. SiO produced
Silicon (II) Oxide SiO >1,702 S 2.13 850 F Ta W W Ta RF, RF-R For resistance evaporation, use baffle box and low rate. n = 1.6
Silicon (IV) Oxide SiO2 1,610 ~2.65 * * 1,025* Ex Al2O3 RF Quartz excellent in E-beam. n = 1.544, 1.553
Silicon Boride SiB6 P RF  
Silicon Carbide SiC ~2,700 S, D 3.22 1,000 RF Sputtering preferred. n = 2.654, 2.697
Silicon Nitride Si3N4 1,900 3.44 ~800 RF, RF-R  
Silicon Selenide SiSe 550 Q RF  
Silicon Sulfide SiS 940 S 1.85 450 Q RF n = 1.853
Silicon Telluride SiTe2 4.39 550 Q RF  
Silver Ag 962 10.5 847 958 1,105 Ex W Mo Ta, Mo Al2O3, W DC  
Silver Bromide AgBr 432 D 6.47 ~380 Ta Q RF n = 2.253
Silver Chloride AgCl 455 5.56 ~520 Mo, Pt Mo Q RF n = 2.07
Silver Iodide AgI 558 6.01 ~500 Ta RF n = 2.21
Sodium Na 98 0.97 74 124 192 Ta, SS Q Preheat gently to outgas. Metal reacts quickly in air. n = 4.22
Sodium Bromide NaBr 747 3.2 ~400 Q RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.641
Sodium Chloride NaCl 801 2.17 530 G Ta, W, Mo Q RF Copper oven; little decomposition Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.544
Sodium Cyanide NaCN 564 ~550 Ag RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.452
Sodium Fluoride NaF 993 2.56 ~1,000 G Mo, Ta, W BeO RF Preheat gently to outgas. No decomposition. n = 1.336
Sodium Hydroxide NaOH 318 2.13 ~470 Pt Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.358
Spinel MgAI2O4 8 G RF n = 1.72
Strontium Sr 769 2.6 239 309 403 P W, Ta, Mo W W VC RF Wets but does not alloy with W/Te/Mo. May react in air.
Strontium Chloride SrCl2 875 3.05 n = 1.650
Strontium Fluoride SrF2 1,473 4.24 ~1,000 Al2O3 RF n = 1.442
Strontium Oxide SrO 2,430 S 4.7 1,500 Mo Al2O3 RF Reacts with W/Mo. n = 1.810
Strontium Sulfide SrS >2,000 3.7 Mo RF Decomposes. n = 2.107
Sulfur S 113 2.07 13 19 57 P W W Q Bad for vacuum systems. n = 1.957
Supermalloy®° Ni/Fe/Mo 1,410 8.9 G DC Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources-Ni/Fe and Mo
 Tantalum Ta 2,996 16.6 1,960 2,240 2,590 Ex DC Forms good films
Tantalum Boride TaB2 3,000(?) 11.15 RF  
Tantalum Carbide TaC 3,880 13.9 ~2,500 RF  
Tantalum Nitride TaN 3,360 16.3 RF, RF-R Evaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr N2
Tantalum Pentoxide Ta2O5 1,872 8.2 1,550 1,780 1,920 G Ta W W VC RF, RF-R Slight decomposition. Evaporate Te in 10-3 Torr O2. n = 2.6
Tantalum Sulfide TaS2 >1,300 RF  
Technetium Tc 2,200 11.5 1,570 1,800 2,090  
Teflon® PTFE 330 2.9 W RF Baffled source. Film structure doubtful.
Tellurium Te 449 6.25 157 207 277 P W, Ta W W, Ta Al2O3, Q RF Wets without alloying. n =1.002
Terbium Tb 1,356 8.23 800 950 1,150 Ex Ta Al2O3 RF  
Terbium Fluoride TbF3 1,172 ~800 RF  
Terbium Oxide Tb2O3 2,387 7.87 1,300 Ir RF Partially decomposes
Terbium Peroxide Tb4O7 D Ta RF Films TbO
Thallium Tl 304 11.85 280 360 470 P W, Ta W Al2O3, Q DC Wets freely
Thallium Bromide TlBr 480 S 7.56 ~250 Ta Q RF n = 2.4 - 2.8
Thallium Chloride TlCl 430 S 7 ~150 Ta Q RF n = 2.247
Thallium Iodide TlI 440 S 7.1 ~250 Q RF n = 2.78
Thallium Oxide Tl2O2 717 10.19 350 RF Disproportionates at 850° C to Tl2O
Thorium Th 1,750 11.7 1,430 1,660 1,925 Ex W, Ta, Mo W W  
Thorium Bromide ThBr4 610 S 5.67 Mo n=2.47
Thorium Carbide ThC2 2,655 8.96 ~2,300 C RF  
Thorium Fluoride ThF4 >900 6.32 ~750 F Mo W VC RF  
Thorium Oxide ThO2 3,220 9.86 ~2,100 G W RF, RF-R  
Thorium Oxyfluoride ThOF2 900 9.1 Mo, Ta n = 1.52
Thorium Sulfide ThS2 1,925 7.3 RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources
Thulium Tm 1,545 S 9.32 461 554 680 G Ta Al2O3 DC  
Thulium Oxide Tm2O3 8.9 1,500 Ir RF Decomposes
Tin Sn 232 7.28 682 807 997 Ex Mo W W Al2O3 DC Wets Mo low sputter power. Use Ta liner in E-beam guns.
Tin Oxide SnO2 1,630 S 6.95 ~1,000 Ex W W W Q, Al2O3 RF, RF-R Films from W are oxygen deficient; oxidize in air. n = 2.0
Tin Selenide SnSe 861 6.18 ~400 G Q RF  
Tin Sulfide SnS 882 5.22 ~450 Q RF  
Tin Telluride SnTe 780 D 6.48 ~450 Q RF  
Titanium Ti 1,660 4.5 1,067 1,235 1,453 Ex W TiC DC Alloys with W/Te/Mo; evolves gas on first heating
Titanium (II) Oxide TiO 1,750 4.93 ~1,500 G W, Mo VC RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 2.2
Titanium (III) Oxide Ti2O3 2,130 D 4.6 G W RF Decomposes
Titanium (IV) Oxide TiO2 1,830 4.26 ~1,300 F W, Mo W RF, RF-R Suboxide, must be reoxidized to rutile. Ta reduces TiO2 to TiO and Ti. n = 2.616, 2.903
Titanium Boride TiB2 2,900 4.5 P RF  
Titanium Carbide TiC 3,140 4.93 ~2,300 RF  
Titanium Nitride TiN 2,930 5.22 G Mo RF, RF-R Sputtering preferred. Decomposes with thermal evaporation.
Tungsten W 3,410 19.35 2,117 2,407 2,757 G DC Forms volatile oxides. Films hard and adherent.
Tungsten Boride WB2 ~2,900 10.77 P RF  
Tungsten Carbide W2C 2,860 17.15 1,480 1,720 2,120 Ex C RF  
Tungsten Disulfide WS2 1,250 D 7.5 RF  
Tungsten Oxide WO3 1,473 S 7.16 980 G W, Pt RF-R Preheat gently to outgas. W reduces oxide slightly. n = 1.68
Tungsten Selenide WSe2 9 RF  
Tungsten Silicide WSi2 >900 9.4 RF  
Tungsten Telluride WTe2 9.49 Q RF  
 Uranium U 1,132 19.05 1,132 1,327 1,582 G Mo, W W W Films oxidize
Uranium (II) Sulfide US >2,000 10.87  
Uranium (III) Oxide U2O3 1,300 D 8.3 W W RF-R Disproportionates at 1,300° C to UO2
Uranium (IV) Oxide UO2 2,878 10.96 W W RF Ta causes decomposition
Uranium (IV) Sulfide US2 >1,100 7.96 W RF Slight decomposition
Uranium Carbide UC2 2,350 11.28 2,100 C RF Decomposes
Uranium Fluoride UF4 960 6.7 300 Ni RF  
Uranium Phosphide UP2 8.57 1,200 Ta RF Decomposes
 Vanadium V 1,890 5.96 1,162 1,332 1,547 Ex W, Mo DC Wets Mo. E-beam-evaporated films preferred. n = 3.03
Vanadium (IV) Oxide VO2 1,967 S 4.34 ~575 RF, RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Vanadium (V) Oxide V2O5 690 D 3.36 ~500 Q RF n = 1.46, 1.52, 1.76
Vanadium Boride VB2 2,400 5.1 RF  
Vanadium Carbide VC 2,810 5.77 ~1,800 RF  
Vanadium Nitride VN 2,320 6.13 RF, RF-R  
Vanadium Silicide VSi2 1,700 4.42 RF  
 Ytterbium Yb 819 S 6.96 520 590 690 G Ta  
Ytterbium Fluoride YbF3 1,157 ~800 Mo RF  
Ytterbium Oxide Yb2O3 2,346 S 9.17 ~1,500 Ir RF, RF-R Loses oxygen
Yttrium Y 1,522 4.47 830 973 1,157 Ex W, Ta W W Al2O3 RF, DC High Ta solubility
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Y3Al5O12 1,990 G W W RF Films not ferroelectric
Yttrium Fluoride YF3 1,387 4.01 RF  
Yttrium Oxide Y2O3 2,410 5.01 ~2,000 G W C RF, RF-R Loses oxygen; films smooth and clear. n = 1.79
 Zinc Zn 420 7.14 127 177 250 Ex Mo, W, Ta W W Al2O3, Q DC Evaporates well under wide range of conditions
Zinc Antimonide Zn3Sb2 570 6.33 RF  
Zinc Bromide ZnBr2 394 4.2 ~300 W C RF Decomposes. n= 1.545
Zinc Fluoride ZnF2 872 4.95 ~800 Pt, Ta Q RF  
Zinc Nitride Zn3N2 6.22 Mo RF Decomposes
Zinc Oxide ZnO 1,975 5.61 ~1,800 F RF-R n = 2.008, 2.029
Zinc Selenide ZnSe >1,100 5.42 660 Ta, W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo Q RF Preheat gently to outgas. Evaporates well. n = 2.89
Zinc Sulfide ZnS 1,700 S 3.98 ~800 G Ta, Mo RF Preheat gently to outgas. Films partially decompose. n = 2.356
Zinc Telluride ZnTe 1,239 6.34 ~600 Mo, Ta RF Preheat gently to outgas. n = 3.56
Zirconium Zr 1,852 6.49 1,477 1,702 1,987 Ex W DC Alloys with W. Films oxidize readily.
Zirconium Boride ZrB2 ~3,200 6.09 G RF  
Zirconium Carbide ZrC 3,540 6.73 ~2,500 RF  
Zirconium Nitride ZrN 2,980 7.09 RF, RF-R Reactively evaporate in 10-3 Torr N2.
Zirconium Oxide ZrO2 ~2,700 5.89 ~2,200 G W RF, RF-R Films oxygen deficient, clear and hard. n = 2.13, 2.19, 2.20
Zirconium Silicate ZrSiO4 2,550 4.56 RF n = 1.92–1.96; 1.97–2.02
Zirconium Silicide ZrSi2 1,700 4.88 RF