The following table of common sputtering target materials is useful in making comparisons between thin film deposition processes. The second column shows the maximum theoretical Density of each PVD coating material. While this density has no bearing on sputtering rate, higher density targets (as close as possible to the theoretical maximum) last longer and have fewer voids or inclusions, so they provide better films.
The sputtering "Yield" data in the third column represents the number of target atoms sputtered (ejected from the target) per argon ion striking the target with a kinetic energy of 600 ev. This energy is typical for an Argon plasma. Magnetron design factors such as the magnetic field strength (and process parameters such as gas composition and pressure) will affect these data, of course. But they remain useful for comparison purposes.
The "Rate" data are representative of the film deposition rate at maximum power density (i.e. about 250 w/in2, with direct cooling) and a 4" source to substrate distance. The rates will decrease linearly with lower power levels. With all other factors unchanged, the film deposition rate will:
- Decrease by approximately 25% per inch beyond the 4" source to substrate distance.
- Increase by approximately 35% per inch closer than the 4" substrate distance.
Yield @ 600 ev
* The above sputtering yield rates are provided as a comparison. Specific thin film deposition rates will vary based upon PVD coating system design and process parameters.
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Sputtering is the thin film deposition manufacturing process at the core of todays semiconductors, disk drives, CDs, and optical devices industries. On an atomic level, sputtering is the process whereby atoms are ejected from a target or source material that is to be deposited on a substrate - such as a silicon wafer, solar panel or optical device - as a result of the bombardment of the target by high energy particles .... Read More
RF or Radio Frequency Sputtering is the technique involved in alternating the electrical potential of the current in the vacuum environment at radio frequencies to avoid a charge building up on certain types of sputtering target materials, which over time can stop the discharge of sputtering atoms terminating the sputtering process .... Read More