Sputter Yeild RatesSemicore Equipment Inc. is a worldwide thin film technology leader providing sputtering equipment and custom vacuum engineering solutions.

The following table of common sputtering target materials is useful in making comparisons between thin film deposition processes. The second column shows the maximum theoretical Density of each PVD coating material. While this density has no bearing on sputtering rate, higher density targets (as close as possible to the theoretical maximum) last longer and have fewer voids or inclusions, so they provide better films.

The sputtering "Yield" data in the third column represents the number of target atoms sputtered (ejected from the target) per argon ion striking the target with a kinetic energy of 600 ev. This energy is typical for an argon plasma. Magnetron design factors such as the magnetic field strength (and process parameters such as gas composition and pressure) will affect these data, of course. But they remain useful for comparison purposes.

The "Rate" data are representative of the film deposition rate at maximum power density (i.e. about 250 w/in2, with direct cooling) and a 4" source to substrate distance. The rates will decrease linearly with lower power levels. With all other factors unchanged, the film deposition rate will:

  • Decrease by approximately 25% per inch beyond the 4" source to substrate distance.
  • Increase by approximately 35% per inch closer than the 4" substrate distance.

Target Material

Density (g/cc)

Yield @ 600 ev

Rate* (Å/sec)

Ag 10.5 3.4 380
Al 2.7 1.2 170
Al98Cu2 2.82   170
Al2O3 3.96   40
Al99Si1 2.66   160
Au 19.31 2.8 320
Be 1.85 0.8 100
B4C 2.52   20
BN 2.25   20
C 2.25 0.2 20
Co 8.9 1.4 190
Cr 7.2 1.3 180
Cu 8.92 2.3 320
Fe 7.86 1.3 180
Ge 5.35 1.2 160
Hf 13.31 0.8 110
In 7.3   800
In2O3 7.18   20
ITO 7.1   20
Ir 22.42 1.2 135
Mg 1.74 1.4 200
MgO 3.58   20
Mn 7.2 1.3 180
Mo 10.2 0.9 120
MoS2 4.8   40
MoSi2 6.31   110
Nb 8.57 0.6 80
Ni 8.9 1.5 190
Ni81Fe19 8.8   110
Ni80Cr20 8.5   140
Ni93V7 8.6   100
Os 22.48 0.9 120
Pd 12.02 2.4 270
Pt 21.45 1.6 205
Re 20.53 0.9 120
Rh 12.4 1.5 190
Ru 12.3 1.3 180
Si 2.33 0.5 80
SiC 3.22   50
SiO2 2.63   70
Si3N4 3.44   40
Sn 5.75   800
SnO 6.45   20
Ta 16.6 0.6 85
TaN 16.3   40
Ta2O5 8.2   40
Th 11.7 0.7 85
Ti 4.5 0.6 80
TiN 5.22   40
TiO2 4.26   40
U 19.05 1 155
V 5.96 0.7 85
W 19.35 0.6 80
W90Ti10 14.6   80
WC 15.63   50
Y 4.47 0.6 85
YBCO 5.41   10
Zn 7.14   340
ZnO 5.61   40
ZnS 3.98   10
Zr 6.49 0.7 85
ZrO2 5.6   40

* The above sputtering yield rates are provided as a comparison. Specific thin film deposition rates will vary based upon PVD coating system design and process parameters.

 

Thin Film Deposition Control By Quartz Crystal Monitor

Thin Film Deposition is a vacuum technology for applying coatings of pure materials to the surface of various objects. The coatings, also called films, are usually in the thickness range of angstroms to microns and can be a single material, or can be multiple materials in a layered structure. This paper discusses the basic principles of thickness and rate control by use of quartz crystal monitoring... Read More


Semicore Equipment Inc is the worldwide thin film technology leader providing sputtering equipment and custom vacuum engineering solutions.