Deposition Techniques

Key of Symbols
CCarbonInclInconelExExcellentPPoorRFRF sputtering is effective*Influenced by composition
GrGraphiteVCVitreous carbonGGoodSSublimesRF-RReactive RF sputter is effective**Cr-plated rod or strip
QQuartzSSStainless SteelFFairDDecomposes***All metals alumina coated
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Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
Evaporation Techniques
Thermal Sources
AluminumAl6602.76778211,010ExWTiB2-BN, ZrB2, BNDCAlloys W/Mo/Ta. Flash evap or use BN crucible.
Aluminum AntimonideAlSb1,0804.3RF
Aluminum ArsenideAlAs1,6003.7~ 1,300RF
Aluminum BromideAlBr3972.64~ 50MoGr
Aluminum CarbideAl4C3~1,400D2.36~ 800FRFn = 2.7
Aluminum FluorideAlF31,291S2.88410490700PMo, W, TaGrRF
Aluminum NitrideAlN>2,200S3.26~1,750FRF-RDecomposes. Reactive evap in 10-3 T N2 with glow discharge.
Aluminum OxideAl2O32,0723.971,550ExWWRF-RSapphire excellent in E-beam; forms smooth, hard films. n = 1.66
Aluminum PhosphideAlP2,0002.42RF
Aluminum, 2% CopperAl2%Cu6402.82DCWire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Aluminum, 2% SiliconAl2%Si6402.691,010TiB2-BNRF, DCWire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
AntimonySb630S6.68279345425PMo*** Ta***Mo, TaMo, TaBN, C, Al2O3RF, DCEvaporates well
Antimony OxideSb2O3656S5.2~300GPtPtBN, Al2O3RF-RDecomposes on W. n = 2.09, 2.18, 2.35
Antimony SelenideSb2Se3611TaCRFStoichiometry variable.
Antimony SulfideSb2S35504.64~200GMo, TaMo, TaAl2O3No decomposition. n=3.19, 4.06, 4.3
Antimony TellurideSb2Te36296.5600CRFDecomposes over 750° C
ArsenicAs817S5.73107150210PCAl2O3, BeO, VCSublimes rapidly at low temp.
Arsenic OxideAs2O33123.74
Arsenic SelenideAs2Se3~3604.75Al2O3, QRF
Arsenic SulfideAs2S33003.43~400FMoAl2O3, QRFn = 2.4, 2.81, 3.02
Arsenic TellurideAs2Te3362FlashSee JVST. 1973;10:748
BariumBa7253.51545627735FW, Ta, MoWWMetalsRFWets without alloying; reacts with ceramics
Barium ChlorideBaCl29633.92~650Ta, MoRFPreheat gently to outgas. n = 1.73
Barium FluorideBaF21,355S4.89~700GMoRFn = 1.47
Barium OxideBaO1,9185.72~1,300PPtPtAl2O3RF, RF-RDecomposes slightly. n = 1.98
Barium SulfideBaS1,2004.251,100MoRFn = 2.16
Barium TitanateBaTiO3D6.02RFGives Ba. Co-evap. from 2 sources or
BerylliumBe1,2781.857108781,000ExW, TaWWBeO, C, VCDCWets W/Mo/Ta. Evaporates easily
Beryllium CarbideBe2C>2,100D1.9
Beryllium ChlorideBeCl24051.9~150RF
Beryllium FluorideBeF2800S1.99~200Gn = <1.33
Beryllium OxideBeO2,5303.011,900GWRF, RF-RNo decomposition from E-beam guns. n=1.72
BismuthBi2719.8330410520ExW, Mo, TaWWAl2O3, VCDCResistivity high.
Bismuth FluorideBiF3727S5.32~300GrRFn = 1.74
Bismuth OxideBi2O38608.55~1,400PPtPtRF, RF-Rn = 1.91
Bismuth SelenideBi2Se3710D6.82~650GGr, QRFCo-evap from 2 sources or sputter
Bismuth SulfideBi2S3685D7.39RFn = 1.34, 1.46
Bismuth TellurideBi2Te35737.7~600W, MoGr, QRFCo-evap from 2 sources or sputter
Bismuth TitanateBi2Ti2O7DRFSputter or co-evap from 2 sources in 10-2 Torr O2
BoronB2,0792.341,2781,5481,797ExCC, VCRFExplodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container
Boron CarbideB4C2,3502.522,5002,5802,650ExRFSimilar to chromium.
Boron NitrideBN~3,000S2.25~1,600PRF, RF-RDecomposes when sputtered; Reactive preferred
Boron OxideB2O3~4501.81~1,400GPt, Mon = 1.48
Boron SulfideB2S33101.55800GrRF
CadmiumCd3218.6464120180PW, Mo, TaW, Mo, TaAl2O3, QDC,RFBad for vacuum systems. Low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium AntimonideCd3Sb24566.92
Cadmium ArsenideCd3As27216.21QRF
Cadmium BromideCdBr25675.19~300
Cadmium ChlorideCdCl25684.05~400
Cadmium FluorideCdF21,1006.64~500RFn = 1.56
Cadmium IodideCdI23875.67~250
Cadmium OxideCdO>1,500D6.95~530RF-RDisproportionates. n = 2.49
Cadmium SelenideCdSe>1,350S5.81540GMo, TaAl2O3, QRFEvaporates easily. n = 2.4
Cadmium SulfideCdS1,750S4.82550FW, Mo, TaWAl2O3, QRFSticking coefficient affected by substrate
Cadmium TellurideCdTe1,1215.85450W, Mo, TaWW, Ta, MoRFStoichiometry depends on substrate temp. n~2.6
CalciumCa839S1.54272357459PWWWAl2O3, QCorrodes in air.
Calcium FluorideCaF21,4233.18~1,100W, Mo, TaW, Mo, TaW, Mo, TaQRFRate control important. Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.43
Calcium OxideCaO2,614~3.3~1,700W, MoZrO2RF-RForms volatile oxides with W/Mo.
Calcium SilicateCaSiO31,5402.91GQRFn = 1.61, 1.66
Calcium SulfideCaSD2.51,100MoRFDecomposes. n = 2.14
Calcium TitanateCaTiO31,9754.11,4901,6001,690PRFDisproportionates except in sputtering. n = 2.34
Calcium TungstateCaWO46.06GWRFn = 1.92
CarbonC~3,652S1.8–2.11,6571,8672,137ExPDCE-beam preferred. Arc evaporation. Poor film adhesion.
CeriumCe798~6.709701,1501,380GW, TaWW, TaAl2O3, BeO, VCDC, RF
Cerium (III) OxideCe2O31,6926.86FWAlloys with source. Use 0.015″–0.020″ W boat. n = 1.95
Cerium (IV) OxideCeO2~2,6007.131,8902,0002,310GWRF, RF-RVery little decomposition.
Cerium FluorideCeF31,4606.16~900GW, Mo, TaMo, TaRFPreheat gently to outgas. n ~ 1.7
Cesium BromideCsBr6363.04~400WRFn = 1.70
Cesium ChlorideCsCl6453.99~500WRFn = 1.64
Cesium FluorideCsF6824.12~500WRFn = 1.48
Cesium HydroxideCsOH2723.68550Pt
Cesium IodideCsI6264.51~500WPt, QRFn = 1.79
ChioloteNa5Al3F142.9~800Mo, WRFn = 1.33
ChromiumCr1,857S7.28379771,157G**WWVCDCFilms very adherent. High rates possible.
Chromium BorideCrB2,760(?)6.17RF
Chromium BromideCrBr28424.36550InclRF
Chromium CarbideCr3C21,9806.68~2,000FWRF
Chromium ChlorideCrCl28242.88550Fe, InclRF
Chromium OxideCr2O32,2665.21~2,000GW, MoWRF, RF-RDisproportionates to lower oxides; reoxidizes at 600° C in air. n = 2.55
Chromium SilicideCrSi21,4905.5RF
Chromium-Silicon MonoxideCr-SiOS****GWWRFFlash evaporate
Cobalt BromideCoBr2678D4.91400InclRF
Cobalt ChlorideCoCl2724D3.36472InclRF
Cobalt OxideCoO1,7956.45DC-R, RF-RSputter preferred.
Cobalt°Co1,4958.98509901,200ExW, NbWAl2O3, BeODCAlloys with W/Te/Mo
CopperCu1,0838.927278571,017ExMoWWAl2O3, Mo, TaDCAdhesion poor. Use interlayer (Cr). Evaporates using any source material.
Copper ChlorideCuCl4304.14~600RFn = 1.93
Copper OxideCu2O1,235S6~600GTaAl2O3DC-R, RF-Rn = 2.71
Copper SulfideCu2S1,1005.6
CryoliteNa3AlF61,0002.91,0201,2601,480ExW, Mo, TaW, Mo, TaVCRFLarge chunks reduce spitting Little decomposition
Dysprosium FluorideDyF31,360S~800GTaRF
Dysprosium OxideDy2O32,3407.81~1,400IrRF, RF-RLoses oxygen.
ErbiumEr1,529S9.07650775930GW, TaDC
Erbium FluorideErF31,350~750MoRFSee JVST. 1985; A3(6):2320.
Erbium OxideEr2O38.64~1,600IrRF, RF-RLoses oxygen
EuropiumEu822S5.24280360480FW, TaAl2O3DCLow Te solubility
Europium FluorideEuF21,3806.5~950MoRF
Europium OxideEu2O37.42~1,600GIr, Ta, WThO2RF, RF-RLoses oxygen. Films clear and hard.
Europium SulfideEuS5.75GRF
Gadolinium CarbideGdC21,500CRFDecomposes under sputtering
Gadolinium OxideGd2O32,3307.41FIrRF, RF-RLoses oxygen
Gadolinium°Gd1,3137.97609001,175ExTaAl2O3DCHigh Te solubility
GalliumGa305.9619742907GAl2O3, BeO, QAlloys with W/Te/Mo. Use E-beam gun.
Gallium AntimonideGaSb7105.6FW, TaRFFlash evaporate
Gallium ArsenideGaAs1,2385.3GW, TaCRFFlash evaporate
Gallium NitrideGaN800S6.1~200Al2O3RF, RF-REvaporate Ga in 10-3 Torr N2
Gallium OxideGa2O31,9006.44Pr, WRFLoses oxygen. n = 1.92
Gallium PhosphideGaP1,5404.1770920W, TaWQRFDoes not decompose. Rate control important.
GermaniumGe9375.358129571,167ExW, C, TaQ, Al2O3DCExcellent films from E-beam
Germanium (II) OxideGeO710S500QRFn = 1.61
Germanium (III) OxideGeO21,0866.24~625GTa, MoW, MoQ, Al2O3RF-RSimilar to SiO; film predominantly GeO
Germanium NitrideGe3N2450S5.2~650RF-RSputtering preferred
Germanium TellurideGeTe7256.2381W, MoWQ, Al2O3RF
Glass, Schott® 83292.2ExRFEvaporable alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating.
GoldAu1,06419.328079471,132ExW***, Mo***, WAl2O3, BN, VC, WDCFilms soft; not very adherent.
Hafnium BorideHfB23,25010.5DC, RF
Hafnium CarbideHfC~3,890S12.2~2,600RF
Hafnium NitrideHfN3,305RF, RF-R
Hafnium OxideHfO22,7589.68~2,500FWRF, RF-RFilm HfO
Hafnium SilicideHfSi21,7507.2RF
HolmiumHo1,4748.8650770950GW, TaWW
Holmium FluorideHoF31,143~800QDC, RF
Holmium OxideHo2O32,3708.41IrRF, RF-RLoses oxygen
InconelNi/Cr/Fe1,4258.5GWWWDCUse fine wire wrapped on W Low rate required for smooth films
IndiumIn1577.3487597742ExW, MoWGr, Al2O3DCWets W and Cu. Use Mo liner.
Indium (I) OxideIn2O~600S6.99650RFDecomposes under sputtering
Indium (I) SulfideIn2S6535.87650GrRF
Indium (II) SulfideInS692S5.18650GrRF
Indium (II) TellurideInTe6966.29
Indium (III) OxideIn2O38507.18~1,200GW, PtAl2O3
Indium (III) SulfideIn2S31,050S4.9850GrRFFilm In2S
Indium (III) TellurideIn2Te36675.78RFSputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash
Indium AntimonideInSb5355.8WRFDecomposes. Sputter preferred; or co-evaporate.
Indium ArsenideInAs9435.7780870970WRF
Indium NitrideInN1,2007
Indium PhosphideInP1,0704.8630730W, TaW, TaGrRFDeposits are P rich
Indium SelenideIn2Se38905.67RFSputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash
Indium Tin OxideIn2O3–SnO21,800S
Iron (II) OxideFeO1,3695.7PRF, RF-RDecomposes; sputtering preferred. n=2.32
Iron (III) OxideFe2O31,5655.24GWWDisproportionates to Fe3O4 at 1,530° C. n = 3.01
Iron Bromide2-Feb684D4.64561FeRF
Iron ChlorideFeCl2670S3.16300FeRFn = 1.57
Iron IodideFeI25.32400FeRF
Iron SulfideFeS1,193D4.74Al2O3RFDecomposes
Iron°Fe1,5357.868589981,180ExWWWAl2O3, BeODCAttacks W. Films hard, smooth. Preheat gently to outgas.
LanthanumLa9216.159901,2121,388ExW, TaAl2O3RFFilms will burn in air if scraped
Lanthanum BorideLaB62,210D2.61GRF
Lanthanum BromideLaBr37835.06TaRFHygroscopic. n=1.94
Lanthanum FluorideLaF31,490S~6.0900GTa, MoTaRFNo decomposition. n ~1.6
Lanthanum OxideLa2O32,3076.511,400GW, TaRFLoses oxygen. n~1.73
LeadPb32811.34342427497ExW, MoWW, TaAl2O3, QDC
Lead BromidePbBr23736.66~300
Lead ChloridePbCl25015.85~325PtAl2O3RFLittle decomposition
Lead FluoridePbF2855S8.24~400W, Pt, MoBeORFn = 1.75
Lead IodidePbI24026.16~500PtQ
Lead OxidePbO8869.53~550PtQ, Al2O3RF-RNo decomposition. n ~2.6
Lead SelenidePbSe1,065S8.1~500W, MoWGr, Al2O3RF
Lead StannatePbSnO31,1158.1670780905PPtPtAl2O3RFDisproportionates
Lead SulfidePbS1,114S7.5500WW, MoQ, Al2O3RFLittle decomposition. n = 3.92
Lead TelluridePbTe9178.167809101,050Mo, Pt, TaAl2O3, GrRFDeposits are Te rich. Sputtering preferred;
Lead TitanatePbTiO37.52TaRF
LithiumLi1810.53227307407GTa, SSAl2O3, BeOMetal reacts quickly in air
Lithium BromideLiBr5503.46~500NiRFn = 1.78
Lithium ChlorideLiCl6052.07400NiRFPreheat gently to outgas. n = 1.66
Lithium FluorideLiF8452.648751,0201,180GNi, Ta, Mo, WAl2O3RFRate control important for optical films. Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.39
Lithium IodideLiI4494.08400Mo, WRFn = 1.96
Lithium OxideLi2O>1,7002.01850Pt, IrRFn = 1.64
LutetiumLu1,6639.841,300ExTaAl2O3RF, DC
Lutetium OxideLu2O39.421,400IrRFDecomposes
MagnesiumMg649S1.74185247327GW, Mo, Ta, CbWWAl2O3, VCDCExtremely high rates possible
Magnesium AluminateMgAl2O42,1353.6GRFNatural spinel. n = 1.72
Magnesium BromideMgBr27003.72~450NiRFDecomposes.
Magnesium ChlorideMgCl27142.32400NiRFDecomposes. n = 1.67
Magnesium FluorideMgF21,2612.9–3.21,000ExMo, TaAl2O3RFRate control and substrate heat important for Excellent with Mo. n = 1.38
Magnesium IodideMgI2<637D4.43200IrRF
Magnesium OxideMgO2,8523.581,300GC, Al2O3RF, RF-REvaporates in 10-3 Torr O2 for stoichiometry.
ManganeseMn1,244S7.2507572647GW, Ta, MoWWAl2O3, BeODC
Manganese (III) OxideMn2O31,0804.5
Manganese (IV) OxideMnO25355.03PWWRF-RLoses oxygen at 535° C
Manganese BromideMnBr2D4.39500InclRF
Manganese ChlorideMnCl26502.98450InclRF
Manganese SulfideMnSD3.991,300MoRFDecomposes. n = 2.70
Mercury SulfideHgS584S8.1250Al2O3RFDecomposes. n = 2.85, 3.20
MolybdenumMo2,61710.21,5921,8222,117ExDCFilms smooth, hard. Careful degas required.
Molybdenum BorideMoB22,1007.12PRF
Molybdenum CarbideMo2C2,6878.9FRFEvaporation of Mo(CO)6 yields Mo2C.
Molybdenum DisulfideMoS21,1854.8~50RF
Molybdenum OxideMoO3795S4.69~900Mo, PtMoAl2O3, BNRFSlight oxygen loss. n = 1.9
Molybdenum SilicideMoSi22,0506.31WRFDecomposes
NeodymiumNd1,0217.017318711,062ExTaAl2O3DCLow W solubility
Neodymium FluorideNdF31,4106.5~900GMo, WMo, TaAl2O3RFVery little decomposition. n = 1.6
Neodymium OxideNd2O3~1,9007.24~1,400GTa, WThO2RF, RF-RLoses oxygen; films clear. E-beam preferred. n = 1.79
Nichrome IV®Ni/Cr1,3958.58479871,217Ex***WW, TaAl2O3, VC, BeODCAlloys with W/Te/Mo
Nickel BromideNiBr2963S5.1362InclRF
Nickel ChlorideNiCl21,001S3.55444InclRF
Nickel OxideNiO1,9846.67~1,470Al2O3RF-RDissociates on heating. n = 2.18
Nickel°Ni1,4538.99271,0721,262ExWWWAl2O3, BeO, VCDCAlloys with W/Te/Mo. Smooth adherent films
NiobiumNb2,4688.571,7281,9772,287ExWDCAttacks W source. n = 1.80
Niobium (II) OxideNbO7.31,100PtRF
Niobium (III) OxideNb2O31,7807.5WWRF, RF-R
Niobium (V) OxideNb2O51,4854.47WWRF, RF-Rn = 1.95
Niobium BorideNbB22,9006.97RF
Niobium CarbideNbC3,5007.6FRF
Niobium NitrideNbN2,5738.4RF, RF-RReactive. Evaporates Nb in 10-3 Torr N2
Niobium TellurideNbTeX7.6RFComposition variable
Niobium-TinNb3SnExDCCo-evaporate from two sources
Osmium OxideOs2O3DDeposits Os in 10-3 Torr O2
PalladiumPd1,554S12.028429921,192ExW*WWAl2O3, BeODCAlloys with refractory metals.
Palladium OxidePdO8709.7575Al2O3RF-RDecomposes
ParyleneC8H8300–4001.1Vapor-depositable plastic
Permalloy®°Ni/Fe1,3958.79471,0471,307GWAl2O3, VCDCFilm low in Ni
PhosphorusP44.11.82327361402Al2O3Material reacts violently in air. n = 2.14
Phosphorus NitrideP3N52.51RF, RF-R
PlatinumPt1,77221.451,2921,4921,747ExWWWC, ThO2DCAlloys with metals. Films soft, poor adhesion.
Platinum OxidePtO245010.2RF-R
PotassiumK630.862360125MoQMetal reacts rapidly in air. Preheat gently outgas.
Potassium BromideKBr7342.75~450Ta, MoQRFPreheat gently to outgas. n = 1.559
Potassium ChlorideKCl770S1.98510GTa, NiRFPreheat gently to outgas. n = 1.49
Potassium FluorideKF8582.48~500QRFPreheat gently to outgas. n = 1.363
Potassium HydroxideKOH3602.04~400PtPreheat gently to outgas
Potassium IodideKI6813.13~500TaRFPreheat gently to outgas. n = 1.677
Praseodymium OxidePr2O3D7.071,400GIrThO2RF, RF-RLoses oxygen
RadiumRa7005 (?)246320416
Rhenium OxideReO3D~7RFEvaporate Re in 10-3 Torr O2
RhodiumRh1,96612.41,2771,4721,707GWWWThO2, VCDCE-beam gun preferred
Rubidium ChlorideRbCl7182.09~550QRFn = 1.493
Rubidium IodideRbI6473.55~400QRFn = 1.647
Samarium OxideSm2O32,3508.35GIrThO2RF, RF-RLoses oxygen. Films smooth, clear.
Samarium SulfideSm2S31,9005.73G
ScandiumSc1,5412.997148371,002ExWAl2O3, BeORFAlloys with Ta.
Scandium OxideSc2O32,3003.86~400FRF, RF-R
SeleniumSe2174.8189125170GW, MoW, MoW, MoAl2O3, VCBad for vacuum systems. High V.P.
SiliconSi1,4102.329921,1471,337FW, TaBeO, Ta, VCDC, RFAlloys with W; use heavy W boat. SiO produced
Silicon (II) OxideSiO>1,702S2.13850FTaWWTaRF, RF-RFor resistance evaporation, use baffle box and low rate. n = 1.6
Silicon (IV) OxideSiO21,610~2.65**1,025*ExAl2O3RFQuartz excellent in E-beam. n = 1.544, 1.553
Silicon BorideSiB6PRF
Silicon CarbideSiC~2,700S, D3.221,000RFSputtering preferred. n = 2.654, 2.697
Silicon NitrideSi3N41,9003.44~800RF, RF-R
Silicon SelenideSiSe550QRF
Silicon SulfideSiS940S1.85450QRFn = 1.853
Silicon TellurideSiTe24.39550QRF
SilverAg96210.58479581,105ExWMoTa, MoAl2O3, WDC
Silver BromideAgBr432D6.47~380TaQRFn = 2.253
Silver ChlorideAgCl4555.56~520Mo, PtMoQRFn = 2.07
Silver IodideAgI5586.01~500TaRFn = 2.21
SodiumNa980.9774124192Ta, SSQPreheat gently to outgas. Metal reacts quickly in air. n = 4.22
Sodium BromideNaBr7473.2~400QRFPreheat gently to outgas. n = 1.641
Sodium ChlorideNaCl8012.17530GTa, W, MoQRFCopper oven; little decomposition Preheat gently to outgas. n = 1.544
Sodium CyanideNaCN564~550AgRFPreheat gently to outgas. n = 1.452
Sodium FluorideNaF9932.56~1,000GMo, Ta, WBeORFPreheat gently to outgas. No decomposition. n = 1.336
Sodium HydroxideNaOH3182.13~470PtPreheat gently to outgas. n = 1.358
SpinelMgAI2O48GRFn = 1.72
StrontiumSr7692.6239309403PW, Ta, MoWWVCRFWets but does not alloy with W/Te/Mo. May react in air.
Strontium ChlorideSrCl28753.05n = 1.650
Strontium FluorideSrF21,4734.24~1,000Al2O3RFn = 1.442
Strontium OxideSrO2,430S4.71,500MoAl2O3RFReacts with W/Mo. n = 1.810
Strontium SulfideSrS>2,0003.7MoRFDecomposes. n = 2.107
SulfurS1132.07131957PWWQBad for vacuum systems. n = 1.957
Supermalloy®°Ni/Fe/Mo1,4108.9GDCSputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources-Ni/Fe and Mo
TantalumTa2,99616.61,9602,2402,590ExDCForms good films
Tantalum BorideTaB23,000(?)11.15RF
Tantalum CarbideTaC3,88013.9~2,500RF
Tantalum NitrideTaN3,36016.3RF, RF-REvaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr N2
Tantalum PentoxideTa2O51,8728.21,5501,7801,920GTaWWVCRF, RF-RSlight decomposition. Evaporate Te in 10-3 Torr O2. n = 2.6
Tantalum SulfideTaS2>1,300RF
Teflon®PTFE3302.9WRFBaffled source. Film structure doubtful.
TelluriumTe4496.25157207277PW, TaWW, TaAl2O3, QRFWets without alloying. n =1.002
Terbium FluorideTbF31,172~800RF
Terbium OxideTb2O32,3877.871,300IrRFPartially decomposes
Terbium PeroxideTb4O7DTaRFFilms TbO
ThalliumTl30411.85280360470PW, TaWAl2O3, QDCWets freely
Thallium BromideTlBr480S7.56~250TaQRFn = 2.4 – 2.8
Thallium ChlorideTlCl430S7~150TaQRFn = 2.247
Thallium IodideTlI440S7.1~250QRFn = 2.78
Thallium OxideTl2O271710.19350RFDisproportionates at 850° C to Tl2O
ThoriumTh1,75011.71,4301,6601,925ExW, Ta, MoWW
Thorium BromideThBr4610S5.67Mon=2.47
Thorium CarbideThC22,6558.96~2,300CRF
Thorium FluorideThF4>9006.32~750FMoWVCRF
Thorium OxideThO23,2209.86~2,100GWRF, RF-R
Thorium OxyfluorideThOF29009.1Mo, Tan = 1.52
Thorium SulfideThS21,9257.3RFSputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources
Thulium OxideTm2O38.91,500IrRFDecomposes
TinSn2327.28682807997ExMoWWAl2O3DCWets Mo low sputter power. Use Ta liner in E-beam guns.
Tin OxideSnO21,630S6.95~1,000ExWWWQ, Al2O3RF, RF-RFilms from W are oxygen deficient; oxidize in air. n = 2.0
Tin SelenideSnSe8616.18~400GQRF
Tin SulfideSnS8825.22~450QRF
Tin TellurideSnTe780D6.48~450QRF
TitaniumTi1,6604.51,0671,2351,453ExWTiCDCAlloys with W/Te/Mo; evolves gas on first heating
Titanium (II) OxideTiO1,7504.93~1,500GW, MoVCRFPreheat gently to outgas. n = 2.2
Titanium (III) OxideTi2O32,130D4.6GWRFDecomposes
Titanium (IV) OxideTiO21,8304.26~1,300FW, MoWRF, RF-RSuboxide, must be reoxidized to rutile. Ta reduces TiO2 to TiO and Ti. n = 2.616, 2.903
Titanium BorideTiB22,9004.5PRF
Titanium CarbideTiC3,1404.93~2,300RF
Titanium NitrideTiN2,9305.22GMoRF, RF-RSputtering preferred. Decomposes with thermal evaporation.
TungstenW3,41019.352,1172,4072,757GDCForms volatile oxides. Films hard and adherent.
Tungsten BorideWB2~2,90010.77PRF
Tungsten CarbideW2C2,86017.151,4801,7202,120ExCRF
Tungsten DisulfideWS21,250D7.5RF
Tungsten OxideWO31,473S7.16980GW, PtRF-RPreheat gently to outgas. W reduces oxide slightly. n = 1.68
Tungsten SelenideWSe29RF
Tungsten SilicideWSi2>9009.4RF
Tungsten TellurideWTe29.49QRF
UraniumU1,13219.051,1321,3271,582GMo, WWWFilms oxidize
Uranium (II) SulfideUS>2,00010.87
Uranium (III) OxideU2O31,300D8.3WWRF-RDisproportionates at 1,300° C to UO2
Uranium (IV) OxideUO22,87810.96WWRFTa causes decomposition
Uranium (IV) SulfideUS2>1,1007.96WRFSlight decomposition
Uranium CarbideUC22,35011.282,100CRFDecomposes
Uranium FluorideUF49606.7300NiRF
Uranium PhosphideUP28.571,200TaRFDecomposes
VanadiumV1,8905.961,1621,3321,547ExW, MoDCWets Mo. E-beam-evaporated films preferred. n = 3.03
Vanadium (IV) OxideVO21,967S4.34~575RF, RF-RSputtering preferred.
Vanadium (V) OxideV2O5690D3.36~500QRFn = 1.46, 1.52, 1.76
Vanadium BorideVB22,4005.1RF
Vanadium CarbideVC2,8105.77~1,800RF
Vanadium NitrideVN2,3206.13RF, RF-R
Vanadium SilicideVSi21,7004.42RF
Ytterbium FluorideYbF31,157~800MoRF
Ytterbium OxideYb2O32,346S9.17~1,500IrRF, RF-RLoses oxygen
YttriumY1,5224.478309731,157ExW, TaWWAl2O3RF, DCHigh Ta solubility
Yttrium Aluminum OxideY3Al5O121,990GWWRFFilms not ferroelectric
Yttrium FluorideYF31,3874.01RF
Yttrium OxideY2O32,4105.01~2,000GWCRF, RF-RLoses oxygen; films smooth and clear. n = 1.79
ZincZn4207.14127177250ExMo, W, TaWWAl2O3, QDCEvaporates well under wide range of conditions
Zinc AntimonideZn3Sb25706.33RF
Zinc BromideZnBr23944.2~300WCRFDecomposes. n= 1.545
Zinc FluorideZnF28724.95~800Pt, TaQRF
Zinc NitrideZn3N26.22MoRFDecomposes
Zinc OxideZnO1,9755.61~1,800FRF-Rn = 2.008, 2.029
Zinc SelenideZnSe>1,1005.42660Ta, W, MoW, MoW, MoQRFPreheat gently to outgas. Evaporates well. n = 2.89
Zinc SulfideZnS1,700S3.98~800GTa, MoRFPreheat gently to outgas. Films partially decompose. n = 2.356
Zinc TellurideZnTe1,2396.34~600Mo, TaRFPreheat gently to outgas. n = 3.56
ZirconiumZr1,8526.491,4771,7021,987ExWDCAlloys with W. Films oxidize readily.
Zirconium BorideZrB2~3,2006.09GRF
Zirconium CarbideZrC3,5406.73~2,500RF
Zirconium NitrideZrN2,9807.09RF, RF-RReactively evaporate in 10-3 Torr N2.
Zirconium OxideZrO2~2,7005.89~2,200GWRF, RF-RFilms oxygen deficient, clear and hard. n = 2.13, 2.19, 2.20
Zirconium SilicateZrSiO42,5504.56RFn = 1.92–1.96; 1.97–2.02
Zirconium SilicideZrSi21,7004.88RF